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pid controller application ppt

Proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is acontrol loop feedback mechanism (Controller) widely used inindustrial control systems. PID controller calculates the value oferror as the difference between the measured process variableand a desired value. The controller attempts to minimize theerror handling process through the use of a control variable.

PID controller algorithm includes three separate constant parameters, and therefore is sometimes referred to as the threeterm Office: proportional, integral and derivative values, denoted by P, I and D. simply put, these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on this error I the accumulation of past errors, and D is the prediction of future errors, based on the current rate of change. Weighted sum of these three actionsis used for the adjustment of the control, such as the position of the control valve, damper or power applied to the heater element.

In the absence of knowledge about the underlying process, PID controller, historically considered to be the most usefulcontroller. By adjusting the three parameters in algorithm ofPID-controller, the controller can monitor actions aimed atspecific technology requirements. Controller response can be described in terms of the response the controller error, the degree to which the controller skips the specified value and the extent of the oscillatory system. It should be noted that the use of the PID control algorithm does not guarantee optimal controlsystem stability or system.

Some applications may require the use of only one or two steps to ensure appropriate control systems. This is achieved by setting other parameters to zero. PID controller will be called PI,PD, P or I controller in the absence of appropriate control measures. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivativeaction is sensitive to measurement noise, while the lack of a holistic perspective can prevent the system from reaching its target value due to management actions.
History and application
PID controller design dates back to the 1890 's, the Governor. PID-controller were subsequently developed in the automatic control of the courts. One of the earliest examples of a PID controller was developed by Elmer Sperry in 1911 year, while first published theoretical analysis of PID-controller was a Russian American engineer Nicolas Minorskim, (Minorskim 1922). Minorskij designed the automatic steering systems for the United States NAVY, and on the basis of his analysis of the observations of the steering wheel, noting controlled ship, based not only on current bugs, but also on past mistakes, as well as the current rate of change; It was a mathematical Minorskim. His goal was stability without total control, which greatly simplified the task. While the proportional control provides stability against small perturbations, it was not enough to combat persistent violation, in particular hard storm (due to hang), which requires an integral member. Finally, a derivative of the term was added to improve control.

The tests were carried out on the USS New Mexico, with acontroller that manages the angular velocity (no angle) of the steering wheel. PI-regulation have sustained yaw (angle error) ±2°. To add an item (D) have a yaw ± 1/6°, better than most of the tail feathers can reach.

The Navy ultimately did not accept the system, due to resistance from the staff. Similar work was carried out and publishedseveral other in 1930 year.

In the early history of automatic control by technological processes PID controller was implemented in the form of amechanical device. These mechanical controllers used a lever,spring and weight and often energized by compressed air. Thesepneumatic controllers were once the industry standard.

Electronic analog controllers can be made of solid state or tubeamplifier, a capacitor and a resistor. Electronic analog PID loopscontrol were often found in more complex electronic systems,such as the head positioning drive, power conditioning power source, or even the discovery of the modern sejsmometramovement scheme. Currently, electronic controllers have largely been replaced by digital controllers implemented withmicrocontrollers or FPGAS.

Most modern PID controllers in the industry are implemented inprogrammable logic controllers (PLCS) or in the form of a digitalcontroller for mounting into the Panel. Software implementations of the advantages they are relatively cheapand are flexible in relation to the implementation of thealgorithm of PID-controller. 
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