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advances in automobile engineering ppt

Advances in automotive TECHNOLOGY


In this manuscript, the study of the hydrogen internal combustion engines is discussed. the aim of this workis to create a means of renewable hydrogen based fuel.development of high efficiency, low-emission electric generator would lead to a path to renewable hydrogenbased fuel. the full prototype will be produced incooperation with commercial producers.

Electric generator based on a developed internal combustion engine technology. It can run on many hydrogen-containing fuels. Efficiency and emissions are comparable to fuel cells (50% fuel into electricity, ~ 0 NOx). The electric generator can be used as stationary energy and hybrid vehicles. It also allows specific markets to use hydrogen economically and safely. Fuel cells, generally considered the ideal devices for such applications where hydrogen or methane used as fuel. However, the widespread development of IC engine, and the repair and maintenance industry, associated with piston engines provide strong incentives to stay with this technology, fuel cells are not yet proven their reliability and price competitiveness.


Two motivations for using hydrogen as an energy carrier today are: 1) the transition strategy fromhydrocarbon fuels to beskopiročnaâ society and 2) torenewable energy sources. the first motivation requiresa discussion while the second is self-evident. the most common and efficient way of obtaining hydrogentoday reforming hydrocarbon fuels, particularly natural gas. Robert Williams was discussing the cost andviability of natural gas reforming with CO2sequestration as a cost effective way to reduce ourannual CO2 emission levels. He argues that if the hydrogen economy was in place, then the additional costs of natural gas and the subsequent reform of CO2absorption is minimal

Decarbonization of fossil fuels and Co2 sequestration,to reduce or eliminate our CO2 emissions to the atmosphere provides a strategy for the transition to arenewable, sustainable beskopiročnaâ of society.However, this requires hydrogen as an energy carrier.


Electrical generators, capable of high conversion efficiency and extremely low exhaust emissions, no doubt, will power advanced hybrid vehicles and stationary power systems. In addition, while the fuel cell has a high public appeal, it seems possible that itmay not offer significant advantages in efficiencycompared with optimized combustion system. In light of these factors, the possibility of internal combustion engines were considered.

The thermodynamic efficiency of the Otto cycle, in theory, represents the best option for IC engine cycle.This is due to the fact that fuel is converted to heatenergy at constant volume, when the working fluid isin the position of maximum compression. This condition leads to the best possible combustion of peak temperatures and thus the maximum possiblethermal efficiency.

Edson (1964) studied analytically possible effectivenessof the ideal Otto cycle, using compression ratios (CR)up to 300: 1, which included the effects of chemicaldissociation, the working fluid thermodynamic properties and concentrations of chemicals. He found that even the compression ratio was increased to 300:1, further increases the thermal efficiency for all fuel types studied. The extreme example, the effectiveness of the work cycle for fuel in isooctane by stoichiometricamounts to more than 80%.

CARIS and Nelson (1959) investigated the use ofhigher compression ratios to improve thermal efficiency of a production V8 engine with spark ignition. They found that work with varying degrees of compression above about 17: 1 not to continue to improve the thermal efficiency of their configuration.They came to the conclusion that it was connectedwith the problem of unstable combustion volume,because it takes time to propagate combustion spark ignition flame.

In addition to the problem of the duration of burning,there are other barriers. These include the transfer ofheat from the combustion gases to the cylinder wall, and the operational difficulties associated with increased pressure for engines intended forcompression ratios above 25: 1 (Overington andThring 1981, Muranaka and Ishida, 1987). 

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